High blood pressure, often known as hypertension, is a condition in which the blood’s long-term force against the artery walls becomes so high that it puts a person at risk for major health problems like heart disease. As a result, it’s crucial to control this disease and reduce the risk of developing more significant health problems. Continue reading to learn more about the causes and complications of this condition.

Causes of High Blood pressure

There are two types of high blood pressure, each with its own set of causes:

Primary hypertension

Generally, this blood pressure problem has no recognized etiology in most adults. Instead, it tends to develop gradually over the years. It is also known as primary (essential) hypertension.

Secondary hypertension

Some people develop high blood pressure problems due to other health conditions or medications. This is referred to as secondary hypertension. It tends to develop suddenly and leads to higher blood pressure. There are many health conditions and medicines that can lead to this type of high blood pressure. Some of them are listed below-

  • Kidney problem
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Thyroid conditions
  • Certain medicines such as birth control pills or decongestants
  • Some over-the-counter pain relievers and prescription drugs
  • Illegal drugs. For example- cocaine


The excess pressure on the artery walls can damage your blood vessels and other body organs. If you are suffering from this condition and leave it unattended for a longer period, you are at the risk of more significant damage later; some of the complications are listed below:

Heart attack- The high pressure on artery walls caused by hypertension can cause the hardening and thickening of the arteries. This condition is known as atherosclerosis. It may pose a person at the risk of a heart attack, stroke, or other heart complications.

Aneurysm- It’s a condition where the blood vessels become weak and bulge. When an aneurysm ruptures, it can be fatal.

Heart failure- The heart has to work harder to pump blood against the higher pressure in your blood vessels. It can result in the thickening of the heart chamber’s walls and may often lead to heart failure.

Abnormal functioning of kidneys- High blood pressure can lead to weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys that can affect their normal functions.

Vision loss- Hypertension may often lead to thickened, narrowed, or torn blood vessels in the eyes, resulting in vision loss.

Metabolic syndrome- It’s a group of disorders that includes increased waist size, high triglycerides level, reduced “good” cholesterol level, high insulin levels in the blood, etc. These health issues put a person at the risk of developing high blood sugar, heart disease, and stroke.

Difficulty reminding things and understanding- Uncontrolled high blood pressure may also cause memory loss. It can affect your ability to think and learn.

As hypertension is a risk factor for a variety of serious health problems, it’s always a great idea to talk to your doctor about how to control hypertension symptoms and stay healthy.